Earlier the process of drug research was confined to the empirical testing of a large number of compounds for a specific activity. The bioactive phytochemical flavonoid has focused on the current scenario for various pharmacological activities. Flavonoids are chief active constituents have been used to management of various human diseases. Rutin (quercetin-3- rhamnosyl glucoside) as the flavonoids display antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and heart disease protective activities. Rutin by acting as antioxidants exhibited several beneficial effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antiviral as well as an anticancer activity. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, EC 126.96.36.199) is one of the enzymes active in the folate cycle which plays a central role in DNA synthesis. DHFR Inhibition is a key element in the treatment of many diseases, including cancer and AIDS related infections. A investigate for new selective inhibitors is motivated by the resistance to common drugs observed in the course of treatment. In this paper an attempt has been made to find new DHF inhibitor by molecular docking. The rutin strictly follows Lippinski’s rule of five, thus having very good drug score as well as drug likeness score. The present study reveals that rutin has good binding affinity for DHFR and this can be use for the inhibition purpose and thus good antibacterial and anti cancer activity along with other important activities could be obtained.
Background: Oxidative stress is one of several mechanisms leading to nanotoxicity. Some nano-metal oxides can enhance ROS generation, inducing oxidative stress, DNA damage, and unregulated cell signaling, and eventually leading to changes in cell motility, apoptosis, and even carcinogenesis. The level of ROS generation by engineered nanomaterials is dependent on the chemical nature of the nanoparticles. Antioxidants play an important role in preventing, or in most cases, limiting the damage caused by ROS. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of copper oxide and/or zinc oxide nanoparticles on oxidative damage and antioxidant defense system in male albino rats.
Effect of Zinc on Spermatogenesis
Mohammad Sair, Sana Imran, Mohammad Nauman Shad,Mohammad Azeem and Tufail Soomro
EAS J Pharm Pharmacol, 2019; 1(6): 145-148
Objective: To study the effect of zinc on spermatogenesis in albino rats.Method: This study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology BMSI, JPMC Karachi. four groups of albino rats were made 15 rats in each group .Group one was control group given normal diet only , group two was given indomethacin, group three was given zinc and group four was given combination of Zinc and indomethacin. Drugs were given for 12 weeks. At the end of study histopathology of testes was performed to see spermatogenesis. Data was analyzed statistically.Results: In group 2 focal loss of normal distribution of germ cells series was seen with focal detachment of basement membrane.In group 4normal series of spermatogenesis seen Conclusion: Zinc has a protective role on testes.
Background: Inappropriate prescribing has been recognized in several health facilities in developing countries that need to be assessed periodically to improve the therapeutic efficacy, reduce side effects and provide feedback to prescribers. The purpose of this study was to compare the prescribing pattern of NSAIDs in two hospitals of the orthopedic outpatient department located in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal. Method: A cross-sectional hospital-based descriptive study of a month duration (August 2017) with a purposive sampling method was undertaken for the data collection. WHO drug use indicators were selected to evaluate prescription patterns. A total number of 205 patients were eligible from hospital M and hospital K (135 and 70), respectively. Results: Among 135 patients studied in HM, the diagnosed orthopedic cases were joint pain (28.1%), low back pain (16.3%), traumatic case (19.3%), spinal case (3.7%) and others (32.6%) whereas studied 70 patients in HK were diagnosed joint pain (24.3%), low back pain (18.6%), traumatic case (14.3%), spinal case (8.6%) and others (34.3%). The frequency of prescription of Aceclofenac (73.3% and 54.3%) was highest among NSAIDs in HM and HK, respectively. The duration of NSAIDs prescribed was in percentage (50.4%) for ten days in HM, whereas it was 41.4% for seven days in HK. Conclusion: NSAIDs were the frequently prescribed drugs in the orthopedic OPD of both Hospitals. Joint pain was the most frequently encountered diagnosis. Aceclofenac was mostly prescribed conventicle non- selective NSAIDs. Along with NSAIDs, PPIs were also prescribed frequently. Based on the recommendation, NSAIDs were used for a short duration.
Objective: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo Anti-snake venom activity in the leaves and stem bark extract of Alstonia venenata R.Br. Method: Powdered leaves and stem bark materials were extracted with ethanol using soxhlet apparatus. The dried extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis and the extracts were evaluated for acute oral toxicity by OECD guideline No 425. By using the MLD of venom the neutralization activity was found out. Acetylcholinesterase activity was performed to determine the percentage of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by the different dilutions of plant extracts. Phospholipase A2 activity was measured using indirect hemolytic assay to determine the reduction of hemolytic halo by the plant extract when comparing with the venom. Fibrinolytic activity was performed to determine the reduction of fibrinolytic halo by the plant extract when comparing with that of venom. In the both activity the MIHD and MFC was determined. In vivo neutralization activity was performed in mice (n=06). The mice were administered with ethanolic extracts of Alstonia venenata R.Br. (200 & 400 mg/kg) through oral 1h prior to administration of 1 to 2 folds of MLD of venom by intraperitoneal route; all the animals were observed for mortality for 24h. Results: Preliminary phytochemical examinations showed the presence of Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Acids, Triterpenoids, Proteins and Amino acids, Sterols and Carbohydrates. The acute oral toxicity study results showed that the extract was found to be safe up to 2000mg/kg. The ethanolic extract of dried leaves and stem bark of Alstonia venenata R.Br. (Family: Apocynaceae) was tested for their protective or Anti-venom activity against Naja naja venom induced toxic actions by in vitro and in vivo methods. The 200 and 400mg/kg of EEAV significantly neutralizes the lethality (up to 2 folds) induced by the Naja naja venom in in vitro and in vivo methods.Conclusion: T
The present investigation was aimed to evaluate hepatoprotective effects of ethanol extract of leaves of Hugonia mystax (HMEE) against ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The HMEE at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and silymarin 100 mg/kg were administered to the ethanol challenged rats. The effect of HMEE and silymarin on physical (wet liver weight, liver volume) and biochemical parameters (SGOT, SGPT, ALP, direct and total Bilirubin) were measured in ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Treatment with HMEE (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) reduced the elevated levels of above mentioned physical parameters and biochemical markers of hepatotoxicity. The hepatoprotective properties may be attributed to the polyphenolic compounds like flavonoids, saponins and tannins that are present in the HMEE.
Preformulation study is a part which is initiated once the new molecule is seeded. In a broader way, it deals with studies of physical, chemical, analytical, and pharmaceutical properties related to molecule and provides idea about suitable modification in molecule to show a better performance. Preformulation parameters study can be associated to generation of effective, safer, stable, and reliable pharmaceutical formulation. Metoclopramide is used to enhance GI motility, to treat diabetic gastro-paresis, as an anti-nauseated, and to facilitate intubation of the small bowel during radiologic examination. Metoclopramide may be used to treat chemotherapy-induced emesis and as a radiosensitizing agents in the treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma and glioblastomas in the future. In the present works overall objective of preformulation studies of Metoclopramide HCl is to engender information useful in developing stable and Bioavailable dosage forms.
Standardization plays crucial role for the selection proper raw materials in the production of herbal formulation. Swertia chirata has been used in traditional and folklore medicine for the treatment of several critical diseases and disorders. The present study was focused on preliminary pharmacognostic and phytochemical investigations for determining and establishing the identity, purity and quality of the plants. This will endow with an appropriate guidance for future exploration. The plant was subjected to determination of various physicochemical parameters including ash values (total ash, water soluble ash) and extractive values (alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive). The powdered crude drug was extracted successively with various solvents with increasing polarity and further the extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening for the identification of various phytoconstituents. More over the fingerprint profile of Swertia chirata was established using thin layer chromatography(TLC) methods. TLC was carried out Toluene, Ethyl Acetate: Formic acid [5:4.5:0.5] as a solvent systems, which showed different Rf value. The results of the TLC profiling of the extract confirm about the presence of various phytochemicals.
Abstract: Introduction: “Pharmacovigilance”: As per World Health Organization (WHO), “Pharmacovigilance is the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug related problems”. An adverse drug reaction (ADR) has been defined as ‘“any response to a drug that is noxious and unintended and that occurs at doses used in man for prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy, excluding failure to accomplish the intended purpose”. Materials and Methods: This is cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire based study was carried out to evaluate the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) among nurses/midwives working at Noor Hospital, Indian Institute of Medical Science and Research a tertiary care center towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance. Results: In our study, a total of 70 nurses/midwives were responded and involved in the pre - KAP and post- KAP survey questionnaires. The overall response rates between pre-intervention and post intervention was statistically significant nurses/midwives (P value <0.001) shows that effectiveness of educational intervention for improving awareness of pharmacovigilance among nurses/midwives. Conclusion: In conclusion of this study, the nurses/midwives had a relatively better attitude but lack of knowledge and least practices towards ADRs and Pharmacovigilance. The findings of the study suggest that there is need for continuous education and sensitization regarding Pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting system to nurses/midwives that improving the ongoing Pharmacovigilance activities in our hospital.
Introduction: Drug utilization studies provide useful insights into the current prescribing practices and also
identify irrational prescribing. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by resistance to the action of
insulin, inadequate insulin secretion, or both. Material and Methods: This is a prospective and observational study was
conducted over a period of 6 months in the outpatient Departments of General Medicine and Department of
Pharmacology, a tertiary care teaching hospital. Adult diabetic patients (either newly diagnosed or known cases) of either
sex, who were prescribed at least one anti-diabetic medication (OHA/Insulin), were included in the study. Details about
demography, medical history, diagnosis data, and duration of diabetes, family history of diabetes, co-morbid conditions,
laboratory investigations, and anti- diabetic drug utilization were collected. The adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to
antidiabetic drugs were monitored and documented in suitably designed ADR monitoring forms. Results: In our study
shows that mono and combination therapies for the treatment of type II DM. The present study revealed that most of the
physicians initially prescribed mono therapy (40%) includes Metformin/Glibenclamide/Glimepiride/Gliclazide to control
hyperglycaemia followed by dual therapy (35%) FDC of Metformin + Pioglitazone/Metformin + Glipizide/Metformin +
Glimepiride/ Metformin + Saxagliptin/ Metformin +Voglibose and triple therapy (25%) includes Metformin +
Glimepiride + Pioglitazone. Conclusion: In our study, males were found to be more affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus
than females. In the study, the prescribing trend was found to be monotherapy followed by dual agents because of
presence of higher incidences of co-morbidities. Among oral antidiabetic agents, metformin along with glimepiride was
most commonly used combination.
Introduction: Dyslipidemia is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus.
The lipid changes associated with diabetes mellitus are attributed to increased free fatty acid flux secondary to insulin
resistance. Materials and Methods: This is prospective, comparative, open label, randomized and parallel group. The
subjects enrolled for this study were selected from the Out-Patient Department of Medicine collaboration with
Department of Pharmacology, Tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of month. Newly diagnosed 90 cases of
patients of Type II Diabetes Mellitus well controlled on oral hypoglycemic drugs were randomly divided into 3 groups of
30 each. Group A was received Rosuvastain 10 mg O.D for 3 months, Group B: Simvastatin 10 mg O.D and Group C
was received Atrovastatin 10 mg O.D. Results: In Group ‘A’ the mean difference of Total Cholesterol between baseline
versus after 6 months was 82.37 mg/dl, 64.92 mg/dl and 52.23 mg/dl in Group B and Group C respectively. The mean
difference of Triglycerides between baseline versus after 6 months was 65.04 mg/dl in Group A, 39.99 mg/dl in Group B
and 37.04 mg/dl in Group C. The mean difference of HDL between baseline versus after 6 months was 10.04 mg/dl in
Group A, 10.26 mg/dl in Group B and 9.13 mg/dl in Group C. The mean difference of LDL between baseline versus after
6 months was 79.4 mg/dl in Group A, 67.6 mg/dl in Group B and 33.82 mg/dl in Group C. The mean difference of
VLDL between baseline versus after 6 months was 13.01 mg/dl in Group A, 7.58 mg/dl in Group B and 7.41 mg/dl in
Group C. Conclusion: Finally using Rosuvastatin seems high for the patients but the result obtained by reducing the lipid
parameters by given therapy is beneficial to the patients in long term control of lipid profile and thus helps in the overall
reduction of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with dyslipidaemia.