Abstract: The study was carried out in Bo City, Southern Province - Republic of Sierra Leone. Bo city is the third largest city in Sierra Leone by population (after Freetown and Kenema) and the largest city in the Southern Province. Bo is the capital and administrative centre of the District. Bo is an urban centre and lies approximately 160 miles (250 km) east south-east of Freetown and about 44 miles to Kenema. Bo is the leading financial, educational and economic centre of Southern Sierra Leone. Bo was previously the second largest city in Sierra Leone by population, the city is the primary home of Njala University, the second largest university in Sierra Leone, after the Fourah Bay College. Bo is also home to the Bo Government Secondary School, commonly known as Bo School, which is one of the biggest and most prominent secondary schools in West Africa. The school has a history of producing some of Sierra Leone's most gifted and outstanding students. The study was initiated to investigate the Effect of Leadership Styles on School Administration in Selected Secondary Schools in Bo City. The study hypothesised that there is a relationship between administrators’ leadership styles and school effectiveness for the smooth running of the school which enhances commitment of teachers towards quality education. Most important of what the study revealed was that, many teachers have been elevated to leadership positions (administrators) without much formal administrative training leading to ineffectiveness and mismanagement of schools, hence poor students’ performance and disappointing results. It was also revealed that many schools that were once effective in academic performance have lowered their standards due to poor leadership while some have greatly improved through effective leadership. The effectiveness of schools has continued to dwindle despite the fact that the schools ............................
Abstract: The study looks at how good reading culture and conscious efforts to speak the English language in enhancing the communicative competence of Nigerian University Students. The study uses quantitative techniques where questionnaires were used to get responses from four Universities spread across the Northern part of the Country. The study adopted stratified sampling techniques were 50 students each undergoing various courses of study and in their different age groups were chosen from Federal University Gusau, Zamfara State; University of Ilorin, Kwara State; North-West University Kano (also renamed to Maitama Sule University), Kano State and Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nasarawa State. The choice of two state universities and two federal universities from each of the two zones selected is done to make sure that the responses reflect happening in those areas. The findings were tabulated in simple percentages while charts were used to show pictorial results. The study, however, established that there is a greater number of students who testify to the fact that they either seldom engage in reading and other speaking activities or they never engaged in such activities at all. This habit may downplay their communicative capabilities. It is recommended that teachers of language should encourage students under their care to imbibe a reading culture as it boosts learners’ vocabularies, hence their proficiency in spoken language
In Kenya, the subjects that students choose in secondary schools greatly determine their career paths. This is because the subjects done at secondary schools dictate the courses they do at the post-secondary level of training. Studies show that majority of students are not aware of their career choices while in secondary schools hence they find themselves in the subjects they do either accidentally, or by being greatly influenced by other external factors other than career awareness. It is therefore paramount that subject choice guidance to students, if incorporated in career guidance programme to a great extent can help to solve the problems of students landing in wrong careers because they did not choose the right subjects while in secondary schools. This study sought to determine the extent to which the subject choice is incorporated in to career guidance programmes in secondary schools in Uriri Sub-County. The study employed ex-post facto research design. The target population in the study was 262 form three Agriculture students. 152 Agriculture students were drawn by proportionate stratified random sampling. A closed ended questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analysed using SPSS package version 22 and presented and analysed using frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations. The study found out that information on subject choice was available to a large extent, sufficient to help secondary school students in Uriri Sub-County to make informed career choices.
Britain is a typical island country surrounded by water. Britain's three islands are small in area and small in population, but they once led the world trend and opened up the modernization of human society. Politically, it established the first constitutional monarchy in the history of the world; economically, it was the first to adopt machine production for industrial revolution; in its strongest period, its land area once spread all over the world known as the "empire of the sun". One of the important factors for Britain to rise from a small bullet country in a corner to a world-class power is the emergence of a large number of thinkers, politicians and scientists. John Locke is one of the best, at the same time; he is also a big influence. Locke's theory of thought not only has a profound impact on Britain, but also on the whole world. Until now, people can still find the shadow of Locke's thought in many countries. John Locke (1632-1704) is a great British philosopher and politician. Locke was born in the early period of British modernization. At that time, the British political field had undergone profound and dramatic changes…………………………..
Abstract: This paper examined the impact of free and compulsory education in the development of Akwa Ibom State for the period 1997 to 2018. Data for the study were obtained from Federal Ministry of Education, National Bureau of Statistics, and UBE Digest. The study employed the t – test approach so as to compare both the enrollment and completion rates in the primary and secondary school levels between the period before the implementation of the programme (1997 – 2008) and the period during which the programme is being implemented (2009 – 2018). The result shows that both the enrollment and completion rates differs significantly between the period before the introduction of free and compulsory education and the period of the programme at the secondary school level. However, it was observed that the programme exerted no significant influence at the primary school level. It follows from the findings that the implementation of the free and compulsory education in the state is of great importance as it strives to eradicate illiteracy and prepare the future generations to greatness. The paper concludes that resources availability relates significantly with effective implementation and achievement of the goal of free and compulsory education in Akwa Ibom State. Thus, efforts geared towards adequate provision of educational resources should be made towards meeting the ever increasing enrollment rates in the school system.
Coincidence between mens rea and actus reus is a main principle of criminal law. The accepted wisdom, in all legal systems, is that the mere existence of mens rea and actus reus does not suffice to bring into its legal identity any crime requiring both elements, so their simultaneity is also necessary. The necessity of coincidence between the two in its exact literal meaning of the word has been
justified by different reasoning which has led to an "absolute" account of the
principle. Although the acceptance of this account has a number of positive effects,
it could cause negative effects and injustice too. The objective of this study is to
explicate a different reading of the principle, by which the criminal justice system
can be freed from the trap of such negative effects. Our rival reading of the
principle may be termed the "Relative" as opposed to the "Absolute or traditional"
approach. While the latter i.e. the "traditional or absolute" account of the principle
reads that the coincidence of elements in relation to all crimes requiring both
material and spiritual elements must absolutely exist at point (1) of the time axis of
the process of commission, the former, i.e. our "Relative" account of coincidence
reads that coincidence between elements may occur at any point, for instance (
) of the time axis, for a better understanding of which a graph of different states of
relativity of coincidence is prepared. As it is argued here, the "traditional or
absolute" approach to the concept of coincidence creates a number of obstacles for
the justice system to serve justice for all. Using our new approach however, it is
argued here, would minimize the injustice caused by the traditional approach of
coincidence as much as possible, serves the victim's interest and public order much
Cette étude s’est proposée de contribuer à la compréhension de la situation
actuelle du français dans l’enseignement secondaire et de proposer quelques voies d’issues
aux problèmes que connaissent l’enseignement et l’apprentissage de cette langue. Pour
arriver à ce but, la méthode mixte a été employée. Pour ce faire un questionnaire autodirigé
a été administré à 180 élèves des écoles secondaires du centre-ville du District de Nyanza et
des entretiens individuels ont été menés auprès de 6 enseignants des mêmes écoles. Les
résultats ont montré que les conditions d’apprentissage sont positifs pour les aspects relatifs
à la perception de l’utilité du français, appui matériel des parents et appréciation des
méthodes d’enseignement ; mais négatifs pour les aspects relatifs aux soutiens des parents
dans les devoirs, l’insuffisance d’encouragement des pairs et de l’entourage quant à
l’utilisation du français. Quant à la motivation à apprendre le français, les résultats
montrent que les élèves sont en général motivés à apprendre le français malgré quelques
aspects démotivants comme la perception du français comme langue difficile, peu
d’encouragement à pratiquer la langue et difficiles conditions d’apprentissage comme le
manque du matériel approprié. Eu égards aux résultats, quelques stratégies d’amélioration
des conditions d’enseignement-apprentissage du français ont été formulées comme entre
autres l’amélioration du statut de cette langue et un travail de changement d’attitudes à son