Abstract: Hypertension is still a global burden till date with highest prevalence shifting from the high- and middle-income countries to the low-income countries of the world. Also, adequate knowledge and right perception of hypertension is still very low in such countries which most countries in sub-Saharan Africa belong. The study aims to determine the knowledge and perception of hypertension with associated factors in Ugep, an urban community in South-southern part of Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among adults (18 years and above) residing in Ugep community of Cross River State in South-southern Nigeria. A total of 192 consenting adults were recruited consecutively into the study during a medical outreach organized by Medical and Dental Consultant Association of Nigeria in August, 2017. Majority of the study participants (81.3%) demonstrated poor knowledge of hypertension while only a few of them were still holding wrong perceptions about the causes of hypertension. Among the socio-demographic factors explored, only educational status showed a significant association (p = 0.02) with the knowledge of hypertension among the study participants having no formal education being the poorest (93.0%). The knowledge of hypertension is still low among the Ugep community of CRS with some level of wrong perception about hypertension still persistent. Continuous education of the adult population of Ugep community is advocated in order to improve knowledge and perception of hypertension.
Abstract: Alcohol use continues to be an important global public health problem and adolescence is a period of developing drinking habits. The use and abuse of alcohol by adolescents is on the increase in most African countries and is closely associated with risky behaviours, STDs and mental disorders in adult life. This study aims to identify predictors that may significantly be associated with alcohol use among secondary school students in Calabar South Local Government of Cross River State. A cross-sectional analytical survey was conducted to identify predictors of alcohol use among secondary school students in the study area. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 5 out of 33 secondary schools. A sample size of 370 was calculated using Cochran formula. Data was collected from 370 respondents using semi-structured self-administered questionnaire administered using a proportionate allocation technique among the respondents. Mean age of respondents was 14.89 ± 2.19 years, with 203 (54.9%) between the ages of 11 and 15 years. One hundred and sixty-eight (45.4%) of the students drank alcohol, with the majority of consumers being SSS2 students, 60 (16.2%). The predictors of alcohol used in this study were: respondent’s ages, 11-20 years (p = 0.008), respondent’s type of school, public school (p = 0.025) and respondent’s class, SSS2 (p = 0.035). Parents, schools and health authorities need to create more awareness on the hazards of alcohol drinking. Policy makers should enforce the laws regulating drinking age, with particular focus on adolescent drinking.
Banking on Biobank: A Cognizance
Priyanka A, Wilma Delphine Silvia CR, Venkata Bharat Kumar Pinnelli, Mangala N Sirsikar, Debalina Sen
East African Scholars J Med Sci, 2021; 4(1): 1-10
Abstract: A biobank may be a form of biorepository that stores biological samples (usually human samples) to be used for diagnostic/ research purpose. Biobank became a key resource, supporting many varieties of up to date research like genomics and personalized medicine since 1990. A Biobank acts as a basement with the elaborated detailed information which are associated with the individuals from whom biological materials are collected. Establishment of assorted Biobank, the provision of human tissues/blood samples for translational research has been increased, which successively help in validation and standardization of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic predictive biomarkers. Biobank can be used for several research purposes like, in Cell and biological science, Blood Center, Pathology, Genetics, Bioengineering, Cryobiology and Bioinformatics. Biobanking helps in molecular profiling of samples. This review has emphasized on description of biobank, to grasp differing types, collection, storage, retrieval, ethical issues, applications, functionality of Biobanking in India and its limitations.
Abstract: Primary lymphoma of thyroid is a rare entity among thyroid diseases which constitute only 5% of all thyroid malignancies. Primary thyroid lymphomas are almost always associated with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Most of them are B-cell origin Non-Hodgkin lymphomas, most common subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) followed by Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Treatment and outcome of primary thyroid lymphoma depends on histological subtype and stage of the disease. Here we report two cases of primary thyroid lymphoma of B-cell origin diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and MALT lymphoma. First case is a 48 years old lady who presented with diffuse enlargement of thyroid with retrosternal extension complained of breathlessness and chest discomfort, which was confirmed by MRI scan. FNAC was Lymphocytic thyroiditis-Bethesda Category II. She underwent total thyroidectomy due to compression symptoms and histopathological diagnosis was diffuse large B cell lymphoma after immunohistochemistry. Second case is a 72 years old man who presented with a huge thyroid mass with rapid increase in size over one month duration, associated with hoarseness of voice and difficulty in swallowing. CT scan revealed grossly enlarged thyroid extending into prevertebral area causing compression of esophagus. Total thyroidectomy was done, final diagnosis of which was Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, possibly MALT lymphoma with associated diffuse high grade areas in a background of lymphocytic thyroiditis.
Abstract: Purpose: To determine clinical spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations and its correlation to platelet count in dengue patients. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients of dengue disease who presented during June 2019 to August 2019 were evaluated. Complete ocular examinations were done. Results: Out of 92 patients, 61.95% were male, 38.04% were female. Mean age of presentation was 32.65 years. Number of patients with ocular symptoms was 33.69% & with ocular signs was 45.65%. Subconjunctival haemorrhage was the commonest ocular findings (25%). Posterior segment findings were present in 11.95%, 7.60% had retinal haemorrhage. 40.50% DF, 72.72% DHF patients and 100% DSS had ocular findings. Ocular findings were present in 19.60% in patients with platelet count > 1 lakh & 83.33% in patients with platelets count < 20000. Conclusion: Ophthalmic manifestations are not uncommon but mostly under observed, so ocular examinations in all dengue cases is advised to prevent visual complications.
Abstract: Introduction: Trauma-related injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability in young adult throughout the world. Road traffic accident is the main cause of trauma among the younger one. Aims and Objective: To determine the prevalence and the cause of traumatic injuries and the particular part of the body where trauma mostly affected. Materials and Method: A retrospective study of 400 patients (radiographs) of age group of 26-35years, with suspected cases of traumatic injuries referred to radiology department UDUTH during a period of 10 months (January 2017 to October 2017) were included in this study. Result: From 400 patients studied 282(70.5.%) were male and 118 (29.5%) were female. The mean age of the participants was (45.4), and majority of victims are within the age group of 26–35years accounted for 134 (33.5%) and Head is the common body part affected accounts of 149 (37.3%). Road traffic accidents (RTA) were the predominant cause of trauma injury among the patients accounting for (44%) of the cases, followed by assault patients accounted for only (22.5%) and domestic violence/accidents was the least cause of trauma with (5.8%) of the cases. Radiological assessment has played a vital role in identifying the actual region affected and the type of injury. Conclusion: Trauma is one of the major referral cases that come to the radiology. However, radiology is a second home to trauma cases apart from the trauma centre. Trauma is a major health challenge because it is one of the leading causes of death and disability among younger age group.
Abstract: Schwannoma of the superficial peroneal nerve is very rare, with only four cases reported till 2006. Unlike neurofibromas, schwannomas do not traverse through the nerve but remain in the sheath lying on top of the nerve. Here we present a rare case of Schwannoma of the superficial peroneal nerve with split fat sign. A 48 year old woman complained of a swelling in the lateral aspect of proximal 1/3rd of right leg below the knee joint for 2 weeks. The swelling was painless and very small to begin with but it gradually progressed to the current size of 4 x 2 cm and caused mild pain. On examination mild tenderness and increased local warmth was noted at the site of the swelling. Sensations were intact at the site of swelling. There was no history was trauma or co-morbidities. MRI findings revealed a well-defined ovoid lesion which shows isointensity to muscle in T1WI and hyperintensity in T2 STIR, arising from the nerve sheath in the subcutaneous plane lateral to the right fibular neck. Axial and Coronal T2 STIR MR image of right fibular neck shows an image of right fibular neck with a large ovoid lesion which has predominantly high signal and is eccentrically located in distribution of superficial peroneal nerve which has central region low signal intensity representing “target” sign, which is also known as split fat sign. Differential diagnosis considered were schwannoma and neurofibroma. Later bone curettage was performed and histopathology examination revealed findings consistent with schwannoma.