ABSTRACT Coronavirus is now known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the resulting disease is called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the novel coronavirus outbreak a global pandemic in March 2020. Despite rigorous global containment and quarantine efforts, the incidence of COVID-19 continues to rise, with more than 2,973,347 laboratory-confirmed cases and over 206,018 deaths worldwide. Currently, no specific medication is recommended to treat COVID-19 patients. However, governments and pharmaceutical companies are struggling to quickly find an effective drug to defeat the coronavirus. In this review article we summarize the usefulness of C-reactive protein as positive phase protein and albumin as negative phase protein as investigator of mortality for COVID-19 patient. Relying on C-reactive protein level to albumin level ratio over either albumin or C-reactive protein alone. Ferritin level also may be good predictor for morbidity and mortality but it is affected by iron overload and existing stress condition in COVID-19 patient result in deviation in ferritin level to be higher than expected. Ratio of ferritin to albumin is useful in determining the mortality, risky, diagnostic, following, determination in many illnesses. In our article we will focus in the possibility of the clinical usefulness of C-reactive protein and ferritin level to albumin ratios in triaging, stratifying, diagnosis, following and assessing COVID-19 infected hospitalized patients.
ABSTRACT The study was conducted in school going children in an urban slum of Nakuru Municipality of Nakuru County, Kenya. The main objective of this study was to estimate the levels and identify the factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among school going children residing in an urban slum. A cross-sectional study design was used to select subjects from whom stool specimens were obtained. Two primary schools were randomly selected and used to select 20 pupils from each class (Class 4 to 8). A total of 200 children were randomly selected from the age between 9-17 years. Direct microscopy and concentration methods were used to examine stool samples to detect cysts of protozoa, and larvae and ova of helminthes. 27 stool specimens out of 100 specimens collected from one study site were found to contain cysts or ova of some intestinal parasites while 22 out of 100 stool specimens collected from the other study site were found to contain cysts or ova of some intestinal parasites; no adult worms, neither proglottids of Taenia species were seen in stool specimens from both study sites. Anthropometric measurements were also determined. There were high levels of parasitic infestations that could be attributed to unhygienic conditions, improper disposal of sewage and the non-availability of potable water supplies in the urban slum areas. The study recommends further studies on children in other schools within the slum areas, additional studies in other children attending schools out of the slum areas and regular de-worming programs introduced and enhanced in the affected areas.
ABSTRACT There are numerous Musca domestica (houseflies) in Jos environment which may carry parasites of public health importance. The eating and meat processing tables Jos in Jos do not lack the flies. The study was aimed at discovering the species and prevalence of parasites found in houseflies in Jos. 400 houseflies were captured from four areas of Jos metropolis - Old Bukuru Park, Abattoir, FSMLT hostel & Terminus and taken to the Federal School Medical Laboratory in Jos for parasite identification analysis of the internal and external parts of houseflies using Ochei & Kalhatkah method. The prevalence of parasites seen in the study are: Hookworm (32.9%), Strongyloides stercoralis (21.1%), Entamoeba histolytica (16.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (13.2%), Fasciola spp (7.5%), Teania spp (5.7%), and Balantidium coli (2.9%). The study shows that both the external and internal parts of the flies in Jos Metropolis carried various concentration of parasites depending on the various locations understudy which includes: Hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba Histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides, Fasciola specie, Taenia specie, and Balantidium coli. The implication is that the numerous flies amidst various hips of refuse in various areas of the metropolis could overwhelm community health professionals if not prevented. The parasites seen in his study can cause serious public health challenges in Jos Metropolis and therefore, needs the public health attention to reduce parasitic spread of infection in the Metropolis.
ABSTRACT The main action of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the body is to disrupt the immune system by infecting CD4 T cells. This action has dramatic consequences, especially in women of childbearing age. To highlight this state of affairs, a study to evaluate and characterize possible changes in leukocyte and thrombocyte parameters in women of childbearing age in the city of Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire) was conducted. In fact, 180 women of childbearing age were recruited into a specialized centre for the management of HIV-positive (CIRBA) based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Blood samples were taken from each of these women to perform their serology and to measure the leukocyte and thrombocyte parameters. The results of these investigations showed that the average values of the thrombocytes in the infected women were altered contrary to the leukocyte parameters. In addition, HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) caused an alteration of all the parameters studied. Indeed, a significant difference was observed between them at the level of leukopenia (46.7% vs 30%), neutrophilia (8.3 % vs 1.7%), lymphopenia (20 % vs 3.3%) and low CD4 count (43,3% vs 13,3%), where the proportions were higher in women without ART treatment than in women receiving ARV therapy. This significant difference (p < 0.05) was also observed in lymphocytosis (11.7 % vs 36.7 %), thrombocytopenia (0% vs 3.3%) and elevated CD4 count (15% vs 33.3%). At that level, the proportions of elevated lymphocyte values, CD4 lymphocytes, and decreased thrombocyte values decreased in untreated women compared to women on treatment. This study found that non-pregnant women without antiretroviral therapy were most exposed to leukopenia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, eosinophilia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytosis.
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