ABSTRACT The pandemic coronavirus disease which has started in 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan China, is the major humanity concern nowadays. COVID-19 causes Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) after cytokine storm is pursuing and elderly are the most susceptible. Efforts are made to find a vaccination or a treatment for COVID-19 infection. Due to lack of adequate evidence, no anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug or vaccine has been approved officially, yet. Drug repurposing is at the essence of this battle and since Minocycline has a preferable safety profile and high tolerability, it can be a great tool to the treatment regimens applied. Minocycline has demonstrated antiviral and immunomodulatory activity that is independent of its antibacterial activity. Additionally, the proposed combination with Azithromycin enhances the anti-inflammatory effects of Minocycline which is necessary for a fighting off an excessive cytokine storm response. Some researchers reported effective therapeutic options. On the other hands, there use was limited either because of severe side effects or high cost. In this review article we shall go over recent researches that would support the usage of Minocycline in combating the Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak. Further efforts are require to developing the safest and most effective approach to decrease mortality rate in suspected population and severe case.
ABSTRACT Viruses targeting respiratory tract have significant impact on pulmonary function. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the newly emerged respiratory tract viral infection. Pandemic COVID-19 has caused significant impact on clinical and economic consequences all over the globe. As the process of developing a new drug or a vaccine takes from months to years, it is a pressing need to look for an already existing drug that has the potentiality to work in a prophylactic manner in ambulatory peoples who are at high risk of developing SARS-COV-2. Prevention of the disease is a better option than treating it. World Health Organization WHO recommends prevention strategies like distancing, home isolation, people education, and wearing gloves and mask for suspected COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 has devastating impacts on clinical and economy. Healthcare team and individuals that help in delivery of care to patients all are at high risk for infection. It has rapid human-human horizontal transmission. An idea of using Azithromycin (an approved inveterate drug) in a specific dose and special designed regimen as a prophylaxis for SARS-COV-2 rather than treatment has emerged to light. In this review we will demonstrate the reasons behind the selection of Azithromycin rather than other antibiotics, its advantage that has made it a reasonable candidate to be given as a prophylactic agent against the virulent COVID-19, and its potential mechanism as anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory agent in reducing the probability of COVID-19 in infecting ambulatory people who are at serious risk.
ABSTRACT Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) considered a global pandemic that threatens worldwide health and economy. Outbreaks of such emerging infections present health professionals with the unique challenge of trying to select appropriate pharmacologic treatments in the clinic with little time available for drug testing and development. with neither vaccine nor drugs are currently approved for it, the treatment is basically supportive and symptomatic and that explain why the treatment of this novel virus is very difficult. Repurposing of approved pharmaceutical drugs for new indications presents an ideal alternative solution. Recently, a published study is discussed about the use of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial drugs and then the addition of antibiotics drugs such as Azithromycin which is one of the macrolide antibiotics as a combination with HCQ regimen. One of the limitations of it is increase the risk of a polymorphic ventricular arrythmia (TdP) that may be serious and potentially life-threatening. So, we looking for a safer option as Azithromycin monotherapy. In this review there will be a full elucidation behind the selection of a high dose of Azithromycin monotherapy as a potential red blood cell invasion inhibitor in COVID-19 infected patients based on studies and clinical trial showed its efficacy in such similar mechanism as in the treatment of malarial merozoites RBC invasion.
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