Abstract: The study was undertaken to illustrate the variation of eye size, its relative area in relation to the head and genetic variations of the isoenzymes of lactic dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in three freshwater fishes. These are Bagrus bajad (Forsskål, 1775, order: Siluriformes and Family: Bagridae), Labeo niloticus (Forsskål, 1775, order: Cypriniformes and Family: Cyprinidae) and Lates niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, order: Perciforms and Family: Centropomidae) were captured from River Nile of Egypt and investigated for position of eye and their surface area in relation to head region as well as investigated the retina iso-enzyme electrophoresis to predicted the activity and genetic variations. The study revealed that the average percentage of eye size was increased in Bagrus baja in comparison with Lates niloticus and Labeo niloticus. Bagrus bajad is nocturnal fish. The protrusion and localization of eye in the front of the head region reflected the accommodation to its carnivorous feeding. The isoenzyme fractions of lactic dehydrogenase and glucosde-6-phosphate dehydrogenase varied between the studied fishes. Finally the author concluded that the eye's size and position in the head region represented the habit of feeding and accommodation to the environment. Also, the expression of lactic dehydrogenase and glucose-6phosphate dehydrogenase retinal isoenzymes represented the genetic differences between the studied fishes.
Abstract: The physico-chemical and microbiological quality of honey samples obtained from the tropical rainforest agro-ecological zone of Nigeria were investigated. There is paucity of information on the biochemical characteristics of honey produced from the rain forest zone of Nigeria; hence, the need to provide a database on the characterization of honey produced in this zone. A total of eighteen honey samples collected from this zone were analyzed for their chemical properties including moisture, ash, pH, glucose and fructose content, while the microbial population including total plate count (TPC), total coliform and the levels of spore-forming bacteria and fungi were determined. Data obtained were analyzed statistically by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), while sample means were separated with the aid of Least Significant Difference (LSD) at P ≤ 0.05 using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) package. The mean moisture content values ranged from 12.32 – 34.02 %, while the mean ash content ranged from 0.74 – 1.22 g 100 g-1. The mean pH value of 2.6 obtained from honey samples collected in Akwa Ibom was significantly very low when compared with that of 4.3 and 3.2 obtained from Edo and Bayelsa States honey samples respectively. Glucose and fructose mean values detected in honey samples also showed significant values. Four mineral elements: Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Iron (Fe) were detected, but with levels varying from one place to another. Potassium (K) was the most abundant element with a mean value of 8.06 ppm obtained from Akwa Ibom honey samples. Results of microbiological characteristics showed that microbial profile were low for all microorganisms detected in honey samples produced from the tropical rainforest agro-ecological zone of Nigeria.
Abstract: This present investigation aims to evaluate the effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance and some blood biochemical composition of male Japanese quail. Three hundred, three week old apparently healthy male Japanese quail were used in this experiment. The birds were randomly allocated into 5 groups with 3 replicates of 20 birds for 21 days of experimental period and placed in cages, measuring 100 cm (length) x100 cm (width) x 80 cm (height). Group A was fed on diet 1 containing 18% crude protein, Group B was fed on diet 2 containing 20% crude protein, Group C was fed on diet 3 containing 22% crude protein, Group D was fed on diet 4 containing 24% crude protein and Group E was fed on diet 5containing 26% crude protein. All groups were subjected to similar management practices. Results showed that growth performance parameters significantly improved as dietary crude protein level increased. However dietary protein level beyond 22% has no beneficial effect on growth. Biochemical examination results demonstrated that the crude protein level in diet was not significantly affected the blood glucose, cholesterol, bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus and liver enzyme activities (ASAT and ALT). However, we noticed a significant effect (P<0.05) about Total protein, Albumin, Urea, Triglycerides, Creatinine and Uric acid. Despite the variation of these parameters, they remain within the normal range proposed by . Therefore, dietary protein levels not affected quail health. The crude protein requirement for Japanese quail from 21 to 42 days old is 22%.
This study was conducted on 160 poultry farmers in Sokoto state, Nigeria with
the use of questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude and compliance of poultry
workers with preventive measures for poultry diseases in six Local Government Areas of
the State. Information obtained from respondents showed that about 82.5% knows about
poultry disease with 3.3% through newspaper, 1.5% television, 1.5% friends and 84.9%
experience. The most common poultry disease known was Newcastle disease (41%)
followed by Gumboro (40%) and coccidiosis (31.9%) among others. Also 60.6% of the
respondents have heard about poultry disease outbreak with Avian Influenza having the
highest frequency of 63.9%. Only 39.4% had ever experience an outbreak on their farm
while 32.5% had never experienced it. Out of all the respondents 46.3% received lectures
or training on poultry diseases often and 30% do not. Disease prevention methods
employed in both commercial farms and backyard ones includes vaccination (82%),
medication (71%), sanitation (43%), disinfection (10.6%), use of foot dip (60.6%), use of
farm personnel clothing (59.4%), isolation of sick birds (88.1%). 48.1% of the farmers had
their farms free of wild birds (vectors) while the rest had invasions. Twenty-one point nine
per cent of the respondents disposed carcasses in refuse dump while 31.9% preferred to
bury poultry carcasses. Finally, it was concluded that, the low level of commercial poultry
production in the study area might be due to poor practices by the farmers. So, it is
recommended that, government should put program about training poultry farmers on
biosecurity, disease prevention and adoption of modern husbandry practices suitable for
both commercial poultry production system and backyard poultry production system.
A total of 200 sera samples were collected from Guinea fowl (100) and Pigeons
(100) and subjected to Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Out of
these, 99 samples (49.5%) were found positive for MG antibodies. The prevalence of MG
infection was 60% in Guinea fowl and 39% in Pigeons. In Guinea fowls the males has a
slightly high prevalence of 61.7% compared to the females with a prevalence rate of
57.5%. This study revealed that Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection is prevalent and
widespread in both Guinea fowls and Pigeons within Sokoto metropolis. In Nigeria and
most part of Africa these two species are usually reared in the same households with the
local chickens hence may serve as potential source of infection to them resulting in a more
severe disease in the chicken population.
The study was undertaken to determine the presence and concentration of some
heavy metals in selected tissues of cattle slaughtered from southern agricultural zone of
Nasarawa state using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Fifty samples
comprising 10 each of liver, kidney, skin, intestine and muscle were collected and analyzed
for the presence of Ni, Cr, Pb, Cu and Cd. Male and female cattle of two age categories
(Young and Older) were sampled for the study. The mean concentration of Ni, Pb, Cu and
Cd in all the sampled tissues were generally low and within the permissible limit. High
levels of Cr was detected in all samples with mean concentration of 3.9926 mg/kg, 2.4440
mg/kg, 2.9909 mg/kg, 2.1688 mg/kg and 4.0100 mg/kg in intestine, kidney, liver, muscle
and skin respectively. There exist significant difference (P< 0.05) in the mean
concentration of Ni and Cu between young and older cattle. Higher levels of Cr, Pb and Cd
was detected in the tissues of female animal than male. The result from this study indicates
that cattle slaughtered from the study area are free from Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb residues, but
contained high levels of Cr. Public and private sector should establish cattle ranches so as
to reduce the possibility of grazing cattle in heavy metal contaminated feed and pasture.
Effects of Ecotype and Batch of Hatch on Biometric Characteristics of Tiv and Fulani Local Chickens of Nigeria
Gambo, D., Sabuwa, M. A., Guluwa, L. Y., Maichiki, W. P., Baba, M. K. and Mundi, H. L.
EAS J Vet Med Sci, 2020; 2(3):33-42.
Study was undertaken to determine variations in biometric parameters within and between the Tiv and Fulani local chickens. The study was carried out at the Livestock Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Shabu-Lafia Campus, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State. A total of 110 birds comprising of 10 hens and 1 cock from each of five randomly selected locations for the Tiv and the Fulani chicken ecotypes were purchased and used as the base population. A mating ratio of 1 cock to 10 hens was applied to generate the experimental birds. After successful four batches of hatching, 538 chicks comprising 354 and 184 chicks for the Tiv and the Fulani ecotypes respectively were generated. The birds were raised according to their ecotype and location. Data were collected on biometric traits such as such as body length, shank length, wing lengths and breast girth. The data were subjected to appropriate statistical analysis using the SPSS statistical package. The results indicate that mean linear body measurements increased with advancing age until maturity in both ecotypes. The coefficients of variation (CV) values were generally higher in the Tiv ecotype compared to the Fulani ecotype. In the Tiv ecotype, the highest CV value (42.21 %) was noted in the breast girth at 8 week of age. However in the Fulani ecotype, wing length at week 1 showed the highest CV value (14.23 %). The Fulani ecotype had significantly (P<0.05) higher body length, wing length, shank length and breast girth compared to the Tiv ecotype at all ages. Batch of hatch had significant effect on body linear measures in both ecotypes. In the Tiv ecotype, birds in batch 1 had significantly (P<0.05) higher body linear parameters compared to other batches at weeks 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 except at at week 20 where batch 3 and 4 demonstrated significantly (P<0.05) higher wing length and breast girth. In the Fulani ecotype, batch 1 at weeks 1 and 4 had significantly (P<0.05) better breast gi